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Friday, February 26, 2010 @ 7:37 PM | 0 Talk [s]
ohw yer; ni bkn kom uhh kom kami acer yerr;

story ari ini adlh mngenai ladtop acer mlik adekbadek tlh pn rsak && drosakkn oleh ak ; hehehehehe; && mlg nya my mom xmau ntr kdai..huhuhu..serta kom trsbt skunk ak at my mom..huhuhu kesdihan tol; ini mnybbkn ak xdpt on9!! cehh;

umm ak tpksa amek it skunk n leyh thn la; ttp boring...hahaha; nani da dpt jadual bru tok kelas dy.. ak xlg.. utk pngetahuan smua pljr smk tuanku muhammad, kta ak ad koko pg && ptg ea! pg still n ptg akn abes kul 4.20ptg lau xsilap; the cegu said; itu ppd yg suh; ak xstuju!! td pg nani g tsyn mr rai 8-10am. skunk tyme ini abg n wawa pula tsyn piano at ms siaw; ak da suda pg td! hehehe; nani gk beli adiah 4 her friend the pinky; fikah...

ats sbb ak da dpt on9 ni ak trasa cm na update je blog ni; kesian ak tgk hahaha; umm cuaca hari ni sgt panas la.. hot3! bkak kpas un susa na rsa sjuk; hw ak brlmbak lk 2...ish tp naseb baek addmx ad keje lau x..hai mls lak na wt hw..ish3; wan g rumah wancik skunk da blik. ad penyembelihan lembu at sna; tokcik un ad; smlm smpi pg td mklong blik, pas uh da blik bangi da..

mnggu lpas hpn wawa ad kt mbr dy, wawa xbg twu, ciss geram ak! skunk hpn tu un da ad da.. ak ziarah blogblog spupupapat ak gk td; hehehehe, tgk2 pas uh off; umm ak ad kwn yg ad pnykt appendix.. xtwu la pnykt ap uhh; jd ak wt la research ckit && ini la yg ak dpt;

Vermiform appendix

Vermiform Appendix
Gray536.png
Arteries of cecum and vermiform appendix. (Appendix visible at lower right, labeled as "vermiform process").
Stomach colon rectum diagram.svg
Normal location of the appendix relative to other organs of the digestive system (frontal view).
Latin appendix vermiformis
Gray's subject #249 1178
System Digestive
Artery appendicular artery
Vein appendicular vein
Precursor Midgut
MeSH Appendix
Dorlands/Elsevier Vermiform appendix

In human anatomy, the appendix (or vermiform appendix; also cecal (or caecal) appendix; also vermix) is a blind-ended tube connected to the cecum (or caecum), from which it develops embryologically. The cecum is a pouchlike structure of the colon. The appendix is located near the junction of the small intestinelarge intestine. and the
The term "vermiform" comes from Latin and means "worm-shaped".

Size and location

The appendix averages 10 cm in length, but can range from 2 to 20 cm. The diameter of the appendix is usually between 7 and 8 mm. The longest appendix ever removed measured 26 cm in Zagreb, Croatia. [1]abdomen, or more specifically, the right iliac fossa.[2] Its position within the abdomen corresponds to a point on the surface known as McBurney's point (see below). While the base of the appendix is at a fairly constant location, 2 cm below the ileocaecal valve, [2] the location of the tip of the appendix can vary from being retrocaecal (74%) [2] to being in the pelvis to being extraperitoneal. In rare individuals with situs inversus, the appendix may be located in the lower left side. The appendix is located in the lower quadrant of the

Function

Given the appendix's propensity to cause death by infection, and general good health of people who have had their appendix removed or who have a congenital absence of an appendix, the appendix is traditionally thought to have no function in the human body[citation needed]. There have been no reports of impaired immune or gastrointestinal function in people without an appendix.[citation needed]

Vestigiality





Vermiform appendix

The most common explanation for the appendix's existence in humans is that it's a vestigial structure which has lost its original function. (There has been little study of its function in the other animals in which it occurs—apes, wombats and some rodents—or comparison with animals in which it does not occur.)[citation needed]The Story of Evolution, Joseph McCabe argued: In
The vermiform appendage—in which some recent medical writers have vainly endeavoured to find a utility—is the shrunken remainder of a large and normal intestine of a remote ancestor. This interpretation would stand even if it were found to have a certain use in the human body. Vestigial organs are sometimes pressed into a secondary use when their original function has been lost.[3]
One potential ancestral purpose put forth by Charles Darwin[4] was that the appendix was used for digesting leaves as primates. It may be a vestigial organ of ancient humans that has degraded down to nearly nothing over the course of evolution. Evidence can be seen in herbivorous animals such as the koala. The cecum of the koala is very long, enabling it to host bacteria specific for cellulose breakdown. Human ancestors may have also relied upon this system and lived on a diet rich in foliage. As people began to eat more easily digested foods, they became less reliant on cellulose-rich plants for energy. The cecum became less necessary for digestion and mutations that previously had been deleterious were no longer selected against. These alleles became more frequent and the cecum continued to shrink. After thousands of years, the once-necessary cecum has degraded to what we see today, with the appendix.[4] On the other hand, evolutionary theorists have suggested that natural selection selects for larger appendices because smaller and thinner appendices would be more susceptible to inflammation and disease.[5]

Possible secondary functions

Immune function
New studies propose that the appendix may harbor and protect bacteria that are beneficial in the function of the human colon.[6]
Loren G. Martin, a professor of physiology at Oklahoma State University, argues that the appendix has a function in fetuses and adults.[7] Endocrine cells have been found in the appendix of 11 week old fetuses that contribute to "biological control (homeostatic) mechanisms." In adults, Martin argues that the appendix acts as a lymphatic organ. The appendix is experimentally verified as being rich in infection-fighting lymphoid cells, suggesting that it might play a role in the immune system. Zahid[8] suggests that it plays a role in both manufacturing hormones in fetal development as well as functioning to "train" the immune system, exposing the body to antigens so that it can produce antibodies. He notes that doctors in the last decade have stopped removing the appendix during other surgical procedures as a routine precaution, because it can be successfully transplanted into the urinary tract to rebuild a sphincter muscle and reconstruct a functional bladder.



Apparent function of the human vermiform appendix in the recovery from diarrhea. Although more than 2 million children die each year in developing countries as a result of diarrhea, children living in those countries face an estimated 1.4 billion cases of diarrhea each year.[9]
Maintaining gut flora
Although it was long accepted that the immune tissue, called gut associated lymphoid tissue, surrounding the appendix and elsewhere in the gut carries out a number of important functions, explanations were lacking for the distinctive shape of the appendix and its apparent lack of importance as judged by an absence of side-effects following appendectomy. [10] William Parker, Randy Bollinger, and colleagues at Duke University[6][11] This proposal is based on a new understanding of how the immune system supports the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria,[12][13] in combination with many well-known features of the appendix, including its architecture and its association with copious amounts of immune tissue. Such a function is expected to be useful in a culture lacking modern sanitation and healthcare practice, where diarrhea[11] Current epidemiological data[14] show that diarrhea is one of the leading causes of death in developing countries, indicating that a role of the appendix as an aid in recovering beneficial bacteria following diarrhea may be extremely important in the absence of modern health and sanitation practices.[11] proposed that the appendix serves as a haven for useful bacteria when illness flushes those bacteria from the rest of the intestines. may be prevalent.

Diseases

  
The most common diseases of the appendix (in humans) are appendicitis and carcinoid tumors. Appendix cancer accounts for about 1 in 200 of all gastrointestinal malignancies. In rare cases, adenomas are also present.
Appendicitis (or epityphlitis) is a condition characterized by inflammation of the appendix. Pain often begins in the center of the abdomen, corresponding to the appendix's development as part of the embryonic midgut. This pain is typically a dull, poorly localised, visceral pain.
As the inflammation progresses, the pain begins to localise more clearly to the right lower quadrant, as the peritoneum becomes inflamed. This peritoneal inflammation, or peritonitis, results in rebound tenderness (pain upon removal of pressure rather than application of pressure). In particular, it presents at McBurney's point, 1/3 of the way along a line drawn from the Anterior Superior Iliac Spine to the Umbilicus. Typically, point (skin) pain is not present until the parietal peritoneum is inflamed as well. Fever and an immune system response are also characteristic of appendicitis.
Many cases of appendicitis require removal of the inflamed appendix, either by laparotomy or laparoscopy. Untreated, the appendix may rupture, leading to peritonitis, followed by shock, and, if still untreated, death.
The surgical removal of the vermiform appendix is called an appendicectomy (or appendectomy). This removal is normally performed as an emergency procedure when the patient is suffering from acuteintravenous antibiotics are used to delay or avoid the onset of sepsis; it is now recognized that many cases will resolve when treated non-operatively. In some cases the appendicitis resolves completely; more often, an inflammatory mass forms around the appendix. This is a relative contraindication to surgery. appendicitis. In the absence of surgical facilities,

Use as efferent urinary conduit

The appendix is used for the construction of an efferent urinary conduit, in an operation known as the Mitrofanoff procedure,[15] in people with a neurogenic bladder.

smoga dy cpt smbuh; hee

the other story aritu ad 2 org bro dr uni mna ntah sorg uh nama dy khairul azmi. the story begin bla dak2 kelas 4ibnukhaldun aka kelas sains lukisan kejuruteraan sdg blajar chemistry oleh ckgu zulkifli mohamad mreka masuk mtk kerjasama dak2 klas ak tok dy nye study..ad la kot dy na tesis2 gitu..ahaha..soalan dy byk psal HIV AIDS n mkna perkataan2 yg sewaktu dgnnya; heh mntang2 kelas ak xamek bio dy attack soalan cm uhh..ahaha.. act soalan tu hny tok soalan pengetahuan am bak kta the 2 org brothers;

ohw ya mlm t ak akn story bnda laen dr kul 9 until 10 pm psal ap yg brlaku 2 mnggu ni; na piki dlu ap ak na tulis bru naip; tok pngetahuan semua; hehe assesment ict ak da siap k; drop2 un ak wt la; ak raje n kamil; good!! haha k r out;

sok ad aktiviti best! after da wt bru ak cer; hehehe..

salam; 

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